Archive for the Middle East Category

Obama reaches out to Iran – disgrace

Posted in Arabs, Bible, Christianity, Hate, Islam, Israel, Israeli, Jewish History, Middle East, News, Uncategorized, World News with tags , , , , , on April 15, 2009 by Michael Burks

http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/03/20/obama.iran.video/

The message is a dramatic shift in tone from that of the Bush administration, which included Iran, along with North Korea and Iraq, in an “axis of evil.” It also echoes Obama’s inaugural speech, in which he said to the Muslim world, “we seek a new way forward, based on mutual interest and mutual respect.”

In Friday’s video, Obama said: “The United States wants the Islamic Republic of Iran to take its rightful place in the community of nations. You have that right, but it comes with real responsibilities. And that place cannot be reached through terror or arms, but rather through peaceful actions that demonstrate the true greatness of the Iranian people and civilization.”

There was no immediate response from Tehran to Obama’s message, but Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said last month that his country would welcome talks with the United States “in a fair atmosphere with mutual respect.”

The United States, several European nations and Israel suspect that Tehran has been trying to acquire the capacity to build nuclear weapons, but Iran says its nuclear program is solely for peaceful purposes.

Last month, the Washington-based Institute for Science and International Security released a report saying that Iran has reached “nuclear weapons breakout capability” — it has enough uranium to make a nuclear bomb.

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Gaza boat blows up – Muslims can even attack correctly

Posted in Arabs, Hate, Islam, Israel, Israeli, Jewish History, Middle East, News, racism, Uncategorized, War, Warfare, World News with tags , , on April 13, 2009 by Michael Burks

http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSLD629202

 

GAZA, April 13 (Reuters) – An unmanned Palestinian fishing boat laden with explosives blew up off the coast of the Gaza Strip on Monday in an apparent attempt to attack an Israeli navy patrol, Israel’s military chief said.

No one was hurt in the explosion, which Palestinians said could be heard miles away. Local fishermen in the Hamas-controlled territory said the Israeli ship fired at the boat as it approached, causing the enormous blast.

The Israeli military said it had not shot at the vessel, which exploded some 600 metres (yards) from the naval patrol.

“We believe this was an attempted attack,” said Lieutenant-General Gabi Ashkenazi, head of Israel’s armed forces.

He said the navy crew was unharmed because it followed regulations and did not approach the suspicious boat. There was no Palestinian claim of responsibility. (Writing by Ari Rabinovitch, Reporting by Nidal al-Mughrabi; Editing by Richard Williams)

Israel proves Jews are God’s chosen

Posted in Bible, Christianity, cults, Israel, Israeli, Jewish History, Middle East, New Testament, Old Testament, Religion, The Torah on April 9, 2009 by Michael Burks

http://therefinersfire.org/israel_born_in_one_day.htm

Isaiah 66:7-8: Before going into labor, she gave birth; before her pains came, she delivered a male child. Who ever heard of such at thing? Who has ever seen such things? Is a country born in one day? Is a nation brought forth all at once? For as soon as Tziyon went into labor, she brought forth her children. – Stern’s Complete Jewish Bible


Isaiah 66:7-8

Israel would reborn in just one day….
Bible passage: Isaiah 66:7-8
Prophet: Isaiah
Written: perhaps between 701-681 BC
Fulfilled: 1948

In Isaiah 66:7-8, the prophet foreshadowed the re-birth of Israel, which happened in 1948. Isaiah describes a woman giving birth before going into labor, and he speaks of a country being born in one day. This accurately describes what happened on May 14, 1948 – when the Jews declared independence for Israel as a united and sovereign nation for the first time in 2900 years.

During that same day, the United States issued a statement recognizing Israel’s sovereignty. And, only hours beforehand, a United Nations mandate expired, ending British control of the land. During a 24-hour span of time, foreign control of the land of Israel had formally ceased, and Israel had declared its independence, and its independence was acknowledged by other nations. Modern Israel was literally was born in a single day.

Isaiah said the birth would take place before there would be labor pains. And that too is precisely what happened. A movement called Zionism began in the 1800s to encourage Jews worldwide to move to Israel, which at that time was called Palestine. Within hours of the declaration of independence in 1948, Israel was attacked by the surrounding countries of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

When reading Isaiah 66:7-8, keep in mind that Israel’s status as a sovereign nation was established and reaffirmed during the course of a single day, and that it was born of a movement called Zionism, and that its declaration of independence was not the result of a war but rather the cause of one.

 

Note – Christian Identity nut-cases never quote the above verse. America, which they claim is the new “Jerusalem” was not born in one day like the nation of Israel was.

April 14 – Jewish Passover

Posted in Christianity, Israel, Israeli, Jewish History, Middle East, Religion, World News with tags , , , , on April 7, 2009 by Michael Burks

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passover

 

Passover
Passover
Machine-made matzo, one of the options of unleavened bread eaten on Passover.
Official name Hebrew: פסח (Pesach)
Observed by Jews, Samaritans, Hebrew Roots
Type One of the Three Pilgrim Festivals
Significance Celebrates the Exodus, the freedom from slavery of the Children of Israel from ancient Egypt that followed the Ten Plagues.
Beginning of the 49 days of Counting of the Omer
Begins 14th day of Nisan
Ends 21st day of Nisan in Israel, and among some liberal Diaspora Jews; 22nd day of Nisan outside of Israel among more traditional Diaspora Jews.
2009 date sunset of April 8 to nightfall of 15 April / 16 April
2010 date sunset of March 29 to nightfall of 5 April / 6 April
Celebrations In Jewish practice, one or two festive Seder meals – first two nights; in the times of the Temple in Jerusalem, the Korban Pesach. In Samaritan practice, men gather for a religious ceremony on Mount Gerizim that includes the ancient Passover Sacrifice.
Related to Shavuot (“Festival [of] Weeks”) which follows 49 days from the second night of Passover.

Passover (Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח, He-Pesach.ogg Pesach (help·info), Tiberian: pɛsaħ, Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish: Peysekh, Paysokh) is a Jewish and Samaritan holy day and festival commemorating God sparing the Israelites when he killed the first born of Egypt, and is the seven day Feast of the Unleavened Bread (it lasts eight days in the diaspora) commemorating the Exodus from Egypt and the liberation of the Israelites from slavery.[1]

Passover begins on the 14th day of the first month of the Hebrew calendar (equivalent to March and April in Gregorian calendar) according to the Hebrew Bible.[2]

In the story of the Exodus, the Bible tells that God inflicted ten plagues upon the Egyptians before Pharaoh would release his Israelite slaves, with the tenth plague being the killing of firstborn sons. The Israelites were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a spring lamb and, upon seeing this, the spirit of the Lord passed over these homes, hence the term “passover”.[3] When Pharaoh freed the Israelites, it is said that they left in such a hurry that they could not wait for bread to rise. In commemoration, for the duration of Passover, no leavened bread is eaten, for which reason it is also called חַג הַמַּצּוֹת (Ḥag haMaẓot), “The Festival of the Unleavened Bread”.[4] Matza (unleavened bread) is the primary symbol of the holiday. This bread that is flat and unrisen is called Matzo.

Together with Shavuot (“Pentecost”) and Sukkot (“Tabernacles”), Passover is one of the three pilgrim festivals (Shalosh Regalim) during which the entire Jewish populace historically made a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem. Samaritans still make this pilgrimage to Mount Gerizim, but only men participate in public worship.[5][6]

Contents

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[edit] Date in the spring and length

Passover begins on the 14th day of the first month, which corresponds to the full moon of Nisan, the first month of the Hebrew calendar, in accordance with the Hebrew Bible.[2] Passover is a spring festival, so the 14th of Nisan begins on the night of a full moon after the vernal equinox. To ensure that Passover did not start before spring, the tradition in ancient Israel held that the 1st of Nisan would not start until the barley is ripe, being the test for the onset of spring.[7] If the barley was not ripe an intercalary month (Adar II) would be added. However, since at least the 12th century, the date has been determined mathematically.

In Israel, Passover is the seven-day holiday of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, with the first and last days observed as legal holidays and as holy days involving abstention from work, special prayer services, and holiday meals; the intervening days are known as Chol HaMoed (“festival days”). Diaspora Jews historically observed the festival for eight days, and most still do. Reform and Reconstructionst Jews and Israeli Jews, wherever they are, usually observe the holiday over seven days. The reason for this extra day is due to enactment of the Sages. It is thought by many scholars that Jews outside of Israel could not be certain if their local calendars fully conformed to practice of the temple at Jerusalem, so they added an extra day. But as this practice only attaches to certain (major) holy days, others posit the extra day may have been added to accommodate people who had to travel long distances to participate in communal worship and ritual practices; or the practice may have evolved as a compromise between conflicting interpretations of Jewish Law regarding the calendar; or it may have evolved as a safety measure in areas where Jews were commonly in danger, so that their enemies could not be certain on which day to attack.[8]
Karaite Jews and Samaritans use different versions of the Jewish calendar, which are often out of sync with the modern Jewish calendar by one or two days. In 2009, for example, Nisan 15 on the Jewish calendar used by Rabbinical Judaism corresponds to April 9. On the older Jewish calendars used by Karaites and Samaritans, Abib or Aviv 15 (as opposed to ‘Nisan’) corresponds to April 11 in 2009. The Karaite and Samaritan Passovers are each one day long, followed by the six day Festival of Unleavened Bread – for a total of seven days.

[edit] Origins of the festival

Passover is a biblically-mandated holiday, indicating that it was already old and traditional by the time of the redaction of the Pentateuch:

In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month between the two evenings is the LORD’S Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD; seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread. In the first day ye shall have a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. And ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD seven days; in the seventh day is a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. (Leviticus 23:5)

The biblical regulations for the observance of the festival, which reflect early postexilic practice, require that all leavening be disposed of before the beginning of the 14th of Nisan.[9] An unblemished lamb or kid is to be set apart on Nisan 10,[10] and slaughtered on Nisan 14 “between the two evenings”,[11] a phrase which is, however, not defined. It is then to be eaten “that night”, Nisan 14,[12] roasted, without the removal of its internal organs [13]with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.[14] Nothing of the sacrifice on which the sun rises may be eaten, but must be burned.[15] The sacrifices may only be performed in Jerusalem.[16]

Some of these details can be corroborated, and to some extent amplified, in later postexilic sources. The removal (or “sealing up”) of the leaven is referred to the Passover Papyrus, an Aramaic papyrus from 5th century BCE Elephantine in Egypt. [17] The slaughter of the lambs on the 14th is mentioned in The Book of Jubilees, a Jewish work of the Ptolemaic period, and by the Herodian-era writers Josephus and Philo. These sources also indicate that “between the two evenings” was taken to mean the afternoon.[18] Jubilees states the sacrifice was eaten that night,[19] and together with Josephus states that nothing of the sacrifice was allowed to remain until morning.[20] Philo states that the banquet included hymns and prayers.[21]

The Biblical commandments concerning the Passover (and the Feast of Unleavened Bread) stress the importance of remembering:

And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt; and thou shalt observe and do these statutes.” (Deuteronomy 16:12)

Exodus 12:14 commands, in reference to God’s sparing of the firstborn from the Tenth Plague:

And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.

Exodus 13:3 repeats the command to remember:

Remember this day, in which you came out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, for by strength the hand of the LORD brought you out from this place.

[edit] Origin of the name

“The Jews’ Passover”—facsimile of a miniature from a 15th century missal, ornamented with paintings of the School of Van Eyck

The verb “pasàch” (Hebrew: פָּסַח‎) is first mentioned in the Torah account of the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:23), and there is some debate about its exact meaning: the commonly-held assumption that it means “He passed over”, in reference to God “passing over” the houses of the Israelites during the final of the Ten Plagues of Egypt, stems from the translation provided in the Septuagint (παρελευσεται in Exodus 12:23, and εσκεπασεν in Exodus 12:27). Judging from other instances of the verb, and instances of parallelism, a more faithful translation may be “he hovered over, guarding.” Indeed, this is the image used by Isaiah by his use of this verb in Isaiah. 31:5: “As birds hovering, so will the Lord of hosts protect Jerusalem; He will deliver it as He protecteth it, He will rescue it as He passeth over” (כְּצִפֳּרִים עָפוֹת—כֵּן יָגֵן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת, עַל-יְרוּשָׁלִָם; גָּנוֹן וְהִצִּיל, פָּסֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט.) (Isaiah 31:5) Targum Unkoles translates pesach as “he had pity”, The English term “Passover” came into the English language through William Tyndale‘s translation of the Bible, and later appeared in the King James Version as well.

The term Pesach (Hebrew: פֶּסַח‎) may also refer to the lamb or kid which was designated as the Passover sacrifice (called the Korban Pesach in Hebrew). Four days before the Exodus, the Israelites were commanded to set aside a lamb or kid (Exodus 12:3) and inspect it daily for blemishes. During the day on the 14th of Nisan, they were to slaughter the animal and use its blood to mark their lintels and door posts. Up until midnight on the 15th of Nisan, they were to consume the lamb. Each family (or group of families) gathered together to eat a meal that included the meat of the Korban Pesach while the Tenth Plague ravaged Egypt.

In subsequent years, during the existence of the Tabernacle and later the Temple in Jerusalem, the Korban Pesach was eaten during the Passover Seder on the 15th of Nisan. However, following the destruction of the Temple, no sacrifices may be offered or eaten. The Seder Korban Pesach, a set of scriptural and Rabbinic passages dealing with the Passover sacrifice, is customarily recited during or after the Mincha (afternoon prayer) service on the 14th on Nisan.[22] The story of the Korban Pesach is also retold at the Passover Seder,meaning order, and the symbolic food which represents it on the Seder Plate is usually a roasted lamb shankbone, chicken wing, or chicken neck.

[edit] Historic offering, “Korban Pesach

When the Temple in Jerusalem was standing, the focus of the Passover festival was the Korban Pesach (lit. “Pesach sacrifice,” also known as the “Paschal Lamb”). Every family large enough to completely consume a young lamb or Wild Goat was required to offer one for sacrifice at the Jewish Temple on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nisan,[23] and eat it that night, which was the 15th of Nisan.[24] If the family was too small to finish eating the entire offering in one sitting, an offering was made for a group of families. The offering could not be slaughtered while one was in possession of leaven,[25] and had to be roasted, without its head, feet, or inner organs being removed[26] and eaten together with matzo (unleavened bread) and maror (bitter herbs).[27] One had to be careful not to break any bones from the offering,[28] and none of the meat could be left over by morning.[29]

Because of the Korban Pesach’s status as a sacred offering, the only people allowed to eat it were those who have the obligation to bring the offering. Among those who can not offer or eat the Korban Pesach are: An apostate (Exodus 12:43), a servant (Exodus 12:45), an uncircumcised man (Exodus 12:48), a person in a state of ritual impurity, except when a majority of Jews are in such a state (Pesahim 66b), and a non-Jew. The offering must be made before a quorum of 30 (Pesahim 64b). In the Temple, the Levites sing Hallel while the Kohanim perform the sacrificial service. Men and women are equally obligated regarding the Korban Pesach (Pesahim 91b).

Women were obligated, as men, to perform the Korban Pesach and to participate in a Seder.

Today, in the absence of the Temple, the mitzvah of the Korban Pesach is memorialized in the Seder Korban Pesach, recited in the afternoon of Nisan 14, and in the form of symbolic food placed on the Passover Seder Plate, which is usually a roasted shankbone. Many Sephardic Jews, however, have the opposite custom of eating lamb or goat meat during the Seder in memory of the Korban Pesach

[edit] Modern observance and preparation

Many Jews observe the positive Torah commandment of eating matzo on the first night of Passover at the Passover Seder, as well as the Torah prohibition against eating chametz – certain leavening and fermenting agents, and things made with them, such as yeast breads, certain types of cake and biscuit, and certain alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages—but wine is an essential component of Passover, notwithstanding it being a fermented, yeast-bearing beverage. Karaite Jews are not bound by the oral law, under which “chametz” includes not only leavening agents but the grains from which bread is commonly made. Specifically, five grains, and products made from them, may not be used during Passover—wheat, rye, barley, oats, and spelt—except for making matzo, which must be made from one of these five grains. This is because the oral law decrees they begin to ferment within eighteen minutes of contact with water. So, despite pasta not being a leavened product, macaroni products cannot be owned or used during Passover under this interpretation of Jewish Law. Ashkenazic rabbinical tradition also forbids the use of rice, most legumes and new world grains like maize (unknown to the old world when the Bible was written), because they might be made into bread (such as cornbread). Sephardic and other rabbinical traditions do not have this prohibition.

[edit] Chametz

Chametz (חמץ, “leavening”) refers either to a grain product that is already fermented (e.g. yeast breads, certain types of cake, and most alcoholic beverages) or a substance that can cause fermentation (e.g. yeast or sourdough). The specific definition varies between religious and ethno-cultural traditions. The consumption of chametz and, under the oral law, its possession, are forbidden during Passover in most Jewish traditions.

In Ashkenazic and certain Sephardic applications of Jewish Law, “chametz” does not include baking soda, baking powder or like products. Although these are leavening agents, they leaven by chemical reaction whereas the prohibition against chametz is understood to apply only to fermentation. Thus, bagels, waffles and pancakes made with baking soda and matzo meal are considered permissible, while bagels made with yeast, sourdough pancakes and waffles, and the like, are prohibited. Karaite Jews and many non-Ashkenazic Jewish traditions do not observe a distinction between chemical leavening and leavening by fermentation.

The Torah commandments regarding chametz are:

  • To remove all chametz from one’s home, including things made with chametz, before the first day of Passover. (Exodus 12:15). It may be simply used up, thrown out (historically, destroyed by burning, since there was no weekly garbage pickup in ancient times), or given or sold to non-Jews (or non-Samaritans, as the case may be).

[edit] Spring Mega-Cleaning

Observant Jews typically spend the weeks before Passover in a flurry of thorough housecleaning, to remove every morsel of chametz from every part of the home. The oral Jewish law (Halakha) requires the elimination of olive-sized or larger quantities of leavening from one’s possession, but most housekeeping goes beyond this. Even the cracks of kitchen counters are thoroughly scrubbed, for example, to remove any traces of flour and yeast, however small.

Traditionally, Jews do a formal search for remaining chametz (“bedikat chametz“) after nightfall on the evening before Passover (which is also the evening that precedes the Fast of the Firstborn). A blessing is read (על ביעור חמץ – al biyur chametz, “on the removal of chametz”) and one or more members of the household proceed from room to room to ensure no crumbs remain in any corner. In very traditional families, the search may be conducted by the head of the household; in more modern families, the children may be the ones who do the search, under the careful supervision of their parents.

It is customary to turn off the lights and conduct the search by candlelight, using a feather and a wooden spoon: candlelight effectively illuminates corners without casting shadows; the feather can dust crumbs out of their hiding places; and the wooden spoon which collects the crumbs can be burned the next day with the chametz.

Because the house is assumed to have been thoroughly cleaned by the night before Passover, there is some concern that making a blessing over the search for chametz will be for nought (“bracha l’vatala“) if nothing is found. Thus, ten pieces of bread smaller than the size of an olive are hidden throughout the house in order to ensure that there is chametz to be found.

Official: Hamas won’t form government recognizes Israel

Posted in Arabs, Christianity, Hate, Islam, Israel, Israeli, Jewish History, Middle East, News, racism, Religion, Uncategorized with tags , , , on April 7, 2009 by Michael Burks

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/07/content_11144500.htm

GAZA, April 7 (Xinhua) — A senior Islamic Hamas movement official reiterated on Tuesday that his movement wouldn’t accept forming a new unity government that recognizes the Jewish state.

    Ismail Radwan said in a statement sent to reporters “We won’t deal with any proposal or project, presented to the movement, that calls for abiding by the international Quartet requirements or recognizing Israel.”

    The commitments to the Quartet’s requirements is the core of substantial differences between the Islamic movement that rules the Gaza Strip and west-supported President Mahmoud Abbas.

    So far, a marathon and intensive dialogue held in Cairo between the two sides in March, which will be resumed on April 26, had failed to overcome major differences, mainly to agree on the platform of any new unity government.

    “Forming any Palestinian government that commits itself to the Quartet’s requirements and recognizing Israel as a legitimate state on the land of Palestine is not on Hamas Agenda,” said Radwan.

    Radwan expressed hope that the coming third round of dialogue expected on April 26 “would be more flexible and positive in order to overcome our differences and achieve our national unity.”

    Meanwhile, chief Palestinian negotiator to the dialogue with Hamas Ahmed Qurei said in a statement that the coming round of inter-reconciliation dialogue “will be final and decisive.”

    He accused Hamas movement for being hard in its position and not changing it in spite of several rounds of dialogue, adding that “Fatah is keen to make this dialogue success and is not intending to give up.”

    “We are still having the same differences on four major issues: reforming the PLO, the security forces, the political platform and the upcoming elections. So far we haven’t moved on inch in any of the four issues,” said Qurei.

Jay Faber – lacks education lol

Posted in Arabs, Christianity, cults, Hate, Israel, Israeli, Jewish History, Middle East, racism, Religion, Uncategorized, War with tags , , , , , on March 26, 2009 by Michael Burks

(Faber is on the right, trying hard to look like the lead singer of a 1980’s metal hair band)

 

I was reading a “sermon” that “pastor-halfwit” Faber wrote dealing with Esau-Edom. And all I kept thinking was, “this guy is stupid.” The reason I say this is because nothing he stated in the “sermon” can be backed with facts

His “sermon” can be found here, http://www.aryannationsrevival.org/Esau-Edom.htm. If you have time, or are bored, please take the time to read his nonsense. Its enough to bore one to death. I know I read about three paragraphs and stopped. Mainly because I found tons of facts that history shows the opposite of.

To make a long story short, he like most Identity “preachers” claim that modern Jews are the children of Esau through his marriage with Canaanite wives. Of course he fails to mention or recall that Edom was destroyed years ago. Faber and others claims the prophecy of Obadiah are not yet fulfilled. This however is wrong. The Edom nation was destroyed.

Here is the truth, as the Bible explains http://thomaswilliamson.net/edom.htm

Edom, a nation consisting of the descendants of Esau, twin brother of Jacob and son of Isaac and Rebekah, was located to the southeast of Judah, in a rugged, mountainous region which is now the southwestern part of the kingdom of Jordan.

      Edom is sometimes referred to as Esau (Malachi 1:3), Idumea (Isaiah 34:5) and Mount Seir (Ezekiel 35:3).  All of these names are interchangeable, referring to the same nation, Edom.

      Genesis 36 describes the rapid growth of Edom.  Deuteronomy 2:5 informs us that Edom’s territory was not part of the land promised to Israel andnever would be: “Meddle not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as a foot breadth; because I have given mount Seir unto Esau for a possession.”

      Ezekiel condemned the nation of Edom, saying, “Thou hast had a perpetual hatred, and hast shed the blood of the children of Israel by the force of the sword in the time of their calamity . . .” Ezekiel 35:5.

      Throughout ancient history, the Edomites manifested their hatred against the Hebrews, as shown by their refusing Moses and his people permission to pass through Edomite territory in Numbers 20:14-22.  However, in the time of Elisha, the Edomitesjoined in a military alliance with Israel and Judah, 2 Kings 3:9.  Later, Judah defeated Edom in war, 2 Chronicles 25:5-12.

      The major prophecies against Edomare found in Isaiah 34, Jeremiah 49:7-22, Ezekiel 25:12-14 and 35:1-15, and the book of Obadiah.

      Isaiah prophesied of God’s judgment against Edom about 700 BC, while Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Obadiah all delivered their prophecies of impending doom upon Edom around the year 600 BC.

      It would make sense to look for the fulfillment of these prophecies against Edom in that general time period of history.  However, some have proposed that these prophecies against Edom are still unfulfilled, and that their fulfillment will take place in our generation, in the early 21st Century AD.

      There are 2 big problems with this theory: 1. The Edomites no longer exist.  It is impossible to punish a people who  have already disappeared from the face of the earth many centuries ago.  2. The prophet Malachi, writing about 400 BC, speaks of  God’s judgment of Edom as having already taken place: “And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.”  (Malachi 1:3)

      History records that the Edomites were ravaged by the Babylonian armies in the early 6th Century BC, and that near the end of the 6th Century BC, the Nabateans attacked the Edomites, driving them from their mountain fortresses of Mount Seir, into the Negev Desert to the west. 

      The ancient prophecies against Edom were completely fulfilled, and there is no need to look for those prophecies to be fulfilled yet again today, especially since the Edomites no longer exist as an identifiable nation or ethnic group.

      Some will say, “Are not the Arabs Edomites, and does not the ‘Curse of Esau’ rest upon modern Arabs?”  Though the identification of Edom with the Arabs is a common traditional belief, there is absolutely no Scriptural or historical basis for this notion.

      The Arabians are often mentioned in the Old Testament, as a nation totally distinct from the Edomites.  For instance, the Chronicler mentions Edom in 2 Chronicles 8:17 and Arabia in 2 Chronicles 9:14.  The Edomites were not Arabs – they were Edomites. 

      Obadiah prophesied that the house of Esau would be completely wiped out (v. 18).  If he was talking about the Arabs, then Obadiah’s prophecy was false, since the Arabs are very much with us today.  If Obadiah was talking about Edom, like he said that he was (v.8), then his prophecy has been fulfilled, since Edom has longed since disappeared as a nation.

      An examination of the standard reference works yields no hint nor evidence of any connection between Edomites and Arabs.

      If the Edomitesare not Arabs, then what did happen to them?  We find the answer to that in the “Antiquities of the Jews” by the reliable ancient Jewish historian Josephus, writing of Jewish conquests in the 2nd Century BC:

      “Hyrcanus took also Dora and Marissa, cities of Idumea, and subdued all the Idumeans; and permitted them to stay in that country, if they would circumcise their genitals, and make use of the laws of the Jews; and they were so desirous of living in the country of their forefathers, that they submitted to the use of circumcision, and the rest of the Jewish ways of living; at which time therefore this befell them, that they were hereafter no other than Jews.” Chapter IX, (2).

      William Whiston, translator of Josephus, adds this note: “This account of the Idumeans admitting circumcision, and the entire Jewish law, from this time, or from the days of Hyrcanus, is confirmed by their entire history afterwards.  This, in the opinion of Josephus, made them proselytes of justice, or entire Jews.”  Since that time, the Edomites have been part of the Jewish nation.  Some believe that the Edomites are still identifiable today as Sephardic Jews, but this is speculation.

      The Wycliffe Bible Commentary on Obadiah confirms that judgment came upon Edomin ancient times, starting with the Nabatean invasion soon after the time of Obadiah:

      “Soon after this time, Edom was pushed out of her ancient home by the Nabateans, so that she had to move to the west side of the Dead Sea.  Hebron was made the capital of her new home in south Judah.  The Maccabees, especially John Hyrcanus (c. 125 BC), subdued and Judaized the Edomites.  They were finally destroyed with the Jews in 70 AD by the Roman general Titus.”

      (According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, this conquest of the Edomites by John Hyrcanus took place in 109 BC).

      Adam Clarke’s commentary, Matthew Henry, and Jamieson, Fausset and Brown all see the prophecies against Edom as being fulfilled partly by an invasion by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the early 6th Century BC, and partly by the Maccabees.  Jeremiah 25:21 specifically predicts the humbling of Edom by Babylon, the same power that conquered Jerusalem 5 years before the destruction of Edom.

      Some commentators believe that some of the early prophecies of judgment against Edom were fulfilled by the invasion of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, about 700 BC.  There is no hint anywhere that any of these prophecies against Edom remain to be fulfilled in modern times, or that they can be applied to the current crises in the Middle East. 

      Some have thought that there will never be peace between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine, based on the statement of Ezekiel 35:5: “Because thou hast had a perpetual hatred, and hast shed the blood of the children of Israel by the force of the sword in the time of their calamity. . . .”

          However, we have seen that this passage concerning Edomhas nothing whatsoever to do with the Arabs, ancient or modern.  Scripture and secular history reveal no information about an inevitable hatred between Arabs and Jews over the centuries. 

      Over the centuries, Jews and Arabs have lived in harmony in the Middle East.  On various occasions, Jews have fled to Arab and Muslim lands to escape persecution by the supposedly more enlightened European “Christians.”   

      The current strife between Jews and Arabs in Palestine did not begin until the early 20th Century, with the rise of the modern Zionist movement.

      In my home city of Chicago, large communities of Jews and Arabs live side by side in a state of harmony.  In November, 2000, many Jews in Chicago joined with Palestinian Arabs in peaceful demonstrations to protest Israeli government policies in occupied territories of Palestine.

      We have no way of knowing whether there will soon be peace between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine, but there is nothing in the Word of God to indicate that such a peace cannot take place.

      The prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Obadiah against Edom should not be wrenched out of their proper historical context, andmade to apply to modern peoples who have no connection with Edom.

      The purpose of these prophecies was to assure the Hebrews, at the time that they were taken captive to Babylon in 586 BC, that Jehovah would not allow the covetous Edomites to occupy their land.  God promised that the land of Judah would remain vacant, and that the nation of Israel would be restored on that land after 70 years (Jeremiah 25:11, 29:10, Daniel 9:2).

      The application of those prophecies for today is that we should not be prideful as the Edomiteswere, believing that they were safe from God’s wrath and could never be overthrown in their mountain fortresses.  Also, we should not be covetous as Edom was, nor rejoice when judgment and suffering comes upon others.

          The fate of Edom, and its complete disappearance from the family of nations, constitute a powerful reminder of God’s justice, His judgment, and the sure fulfillment of all that He has promised in His inspired Word.

 As you can tell, the destruction of Edom has already  been fulfilled as God said it would. Faber and others never quote the above verses nor talk about actual history concerning the Bible.

Yes, some people who were Edomites converted to Judaism and became Jews. However, that does not in any way back Faber and his claims. Faber lacks a Biblical education which was easily proved. His teachings are ones he clearly made up due to his hatred of Jews and lack of common sense.

To Christian Identity losers – how do you explain the fact the first 15 Christian Bishops were Jewish?

Posted in Christianity, cults, Hate, Israel, Israeli, Jewish History, Middle East, News, racism, Religion, Uncategorized with tags , , on March 26, 2009 by Michael Burks

http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Jewish_Christians

The term “Early Jewish Christians” is often used in discussing the Early History of Christianity, see also Early Christianity . Jesus , his Twelve Apostles , the Elders , his family , and essentially all of his early followers  were Jewish or Jewish Proselyte s. Hence the 3,000 converts on Pentecost (Sivan  6), following the death and resurrection of Jesus  (Nisan  14 or 15), described in Acts of the Apostles , were all Jews and Proselytes. Samaritans were not Jewish (Judean), but are still identified with the tribes of Israel and also numbered among the early followers, as is the Ethiopian eunuch  . Traditionally the Roman Centurion Cornelius  is considered the first Gentile  convert, as recorded in , albeit he too is a “God-fearer”  proselyte who participated in a Jewish synagogue. The major division prior to that time was between Hellenistic  and non-Hellenistic Jews or Koine Greek   and Aramaic  speakers. The conversion and acceptance of the Gentile Cornelius can be described in terms of the Judaic teaching which describes strangers becoming part of the community . Acts does not use the term “Jewish Christians”, rather those led by James the Just, Simon Peter, and John the Apostle , the “Pillars of the Church”, were called followers of “The Way”. Later groups, or perhaps the same group by different names, were the Ebionites  and Elkasites.

The “Christian” appellation was first applied to the followers after Paul of Tarsus  started preaching at Antioch . Paul made explicit the division between those who were circumcised  and those who were not circumcised in his Epistle to the Galatians 2:7-9:

History of Christianity

This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics….

Early Christianity

The term Early Christians here refers to Christianity of the period before the First Council of Nicaea in 325….

Jesus

Jesus,Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D….

Twelve Apostles

The Twelve Apostles were men that according to the Synoptic Gospels and Christian tradition, were chosen from among the Disciple of Jesus for a mission….

Elder (religious)

A religious elder is valued for his or her wisdom, in part for their age, on the grounds that the older one is then the more one is likely to know….

Desposyni

The Desposyni was a sacred name reserved only for Jesus’ blood relatives. The closely related word meaning lord, master, or ship owner is commonly used of God, human slave-masters, and of Jesus in the reading Luke 13:25 found in Papyrus 75, in…

Disciple (Christianity)

In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. Though often restricted to the twelve apostles, the gospels refer to varying numbers of disciples….

Proselyte

Proselyte, from the Koine Greek p??s???t??/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i.e., a newcomer to Israel; a sojourner in the land, and in the New Testament for a Religious conversion#The convert.2Fproselyte to Judaism f…

Pentecost

Pentecost or Pentecost Sunday is a feast on the Christianity liturgical calendar that commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and women followers of Jesus, fifty days after Easter, and ten days after Ascension Thur…

Sivan

Sivan is the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year and the third month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar….

Death and Resurrection of Jesus

The Death of Jesus and the Resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day , then resurrected on the third….

Nisan

Nisan is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar….

Acts of the Apostles

The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament….

Eunuch

A eunuch can be either a castrated man or, in ancient terms, any man who is impotent with women for a wide variety of reasons….

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Rome civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government….

Centurion Cornelius

Cornelius was a Roman Empire Centurion who is considered by Christians to be the first Gentile to convert to the faith, as related in Acts of the Apostles, 10:1….

Gentile

The word Gentile from the Latin gentilis, can either be a translation of the Hebrew goy/??? or of the Hebrew word nochri/????….

Godfearers

The Godfearers or Sebioi in Greek language are messianic Non-Jews who from the earliest of times have worshipped The Name of the Hebrew Elohim….

Hellenization

Hellenization is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek. The process can either be voluntary, or applied with varying degrees of force….

Koine Greek

Koine Greek refers to the forms of the Greek language used in post-classical antiquity . Other names are Alexandrian, Hellenistic, Common, or New Testament Greek….

James the Just

Saint James the Just, also called James Adelphos, James of Jerusalem, or the Brother of the Lord and sometimes identified with James the Lesser, was an important figure in History of Christianity#The Earliest Church….

John the Apostle

John the Apostle , also known as John the Revelator, was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus….

Ebionites

The Ebionites were an early sect of mostly Jewish followers of Jesus, which flourished in the early centuries of the Common Era, one of several ancient “Jewish Christian” groups that existed during the Roman and Byzantine periods in the Levant….

Christian

A Christian is a follower of Jesus, referred to as Christ. Christians believe Jesus to be the Son of God, who lived a life befitting that of the creator of the universe, free of sin, who at the end of his earthly life was Crucifixion, and then…

Paul of Tarsus

Paul of Tarsus, also known as Paul the Apostle or Saint Paul , is widely considered to be central to the early development and spread of Christianity, particularly westward from Jerusalem….

Circumcision in the Bible

Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as , and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions….

Epistle to the Galatians

The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of early Christian communities in the Roman province of Galatia in central Anatolia….

“On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been entrusted with the gospel for the circumcised (for he who worked through Peter making him an apostle to the circumcised also worked through me in sending me to the Gentiles), and when James and Cephas

Aramaic of Jesus

Most scholars believe that Jesus probably primarily spoke Aramaic language with some Hebrew language and at least a limited grasp of Koine Greek….
 and John, who were acknowledged pillars, recognized the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas

Barnabas

See separate entry for Barnabas or the Sydney Anglican church, St. Barnabas, Broadway.Saint Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament….
 and me the right hand of fellowship, agreeing that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised.” (NRSV)

These terms (circumcised/uncircumcised) are generally interpreted to mean Jews and Greeks , who were predominant; however they are an oversimplification as 1st century Iudaea Province  also had some Jews who no longer circumcised (sometimes called Hellenized Jews), and some Greeks (called Proselytes or Judaizers ) and others such as Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Arabs who did. See also Abrahamic religion .

Jesus is frequently called the “Nazarene” (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Named after him, the followers of Paul are the Nazarenes (, Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 9:1).

The Council of Jerusalem , according to , determined that circumcision was not required of Gentile converts, only avoidance of “pollution of idols , fornication , things strangled, and blood” (KJV, Acts 15:20). The basis for these prohibitions is unclear, Acts 15:21 states only: “For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath  day”, the implication being that they are based on the Law of Moses. Many, beginning with Augustine of Hippo consider them to be based on the Noahide Laws , while some modern scholars reject the connection to Noahide Law and instead see as the basis. Also unclear is whether this meant that this Law in some way applied to them or merely that the requirements were imposed to facilitate common participation in the Christian community by Gentiles who would be in constant relation with the Jewish Christians who would be constantly reminded of their obligation to follow the Law. See also Biblical law in Christianity  and Expounding of the Law .

The early Jewish Christians included those who believed non-Jews must become Jews and adopt Jewish customs . They were derogatively called Judaizers, and even Paul used this term against Jesus’s student Peter in public according to Young’s Literal Translation  of : However, Barnabas, Paul’s partner up till then, sided with Peter (, ). Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers: The Incident at Antioch claims: “St. Paul’s account of the incident leaves no doubt that St. Peter saw the justice of the rebuke.” however, L. Michael White’s From Jesus to Christianity claims: “The blowup with Peter was a total failure of political bravado, and Paul soon left Antioch as persona non grata, never again to return.” See also Pauline Christianity . Scholar James D. G. Dunn, who coined the phrase New Perspective on Paul , has proposed that Peter was the bridge-man (i.e. the pontifex maximus) between the two other “prominent leading figures” of early Christianity: Paul and James the Just.

Marcion in the 2nd century, called the “most dangerous” heretic , rejected the Twelve Apostles, and interpreted a Jesus  who rejected the Law of Moses using 10 Pauline Epistles  and the Gospel of Luke . For example, his version of Luke 23:2 (*): “We found this fellow [Jesus] perverting the nation and destroying the law and the prophets”. Irenaeus  in turn rejected Marcion and praised the Twelve Apostles in his Against Heresies 3.12.12: http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-01/anf01-60.htm#P7525_2024213

Greeks

The Greeks are an ethnic group mostly found in the southern Balkan peninsula of southeastern Europe and are primarily associated with the Greek language….

Iudaea Province

Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea.During the 1st century BCE Judea lost its autonomy to the Roman Empire by becoming first a Client state, then a province of the empire….

Judaizers

Judaizers is a pejorative term used in the Bible in the Epistles of St. Paul, and particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the…

Abrahamic religion

In the study of comparative religion, an Abrahamic religion or Judeo-Abrahamic Faith is any religion deriving from a common ancient Semitic tradition and traced by their adherents to Abraham…

Council of Jerusalem

“Council of Jerusalem” is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15….

Idolatry

Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. In Judaism and Christianity it is defined as worship of an = Etymology …

Fornication

Fornication is a term which refers to any Human sexual behavior between unmarried partners. Sex between unmarried persons is distinguished from adultery by use of the term ‘simple fornication’; whereas relations in which at least one of the par…

Shabbat

Shabbat , is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. It is observed, from before sundown on Friday until after nightfall on Saturday, by many Jewish people with varying degrees of involvement in Judaism….

Noahide Laws

The Seven Noahide Laws , also called the Brit Noah mitzvot and Halakha that are morally binding on non-Jews according to Judaism….

Biblical law in Christianity

Biblical law, commonly called Mosaic Law or Divine Law, refers to the statements or principles of law and ethics contained in the Five Books of Moses , the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, which is incorporated into the Christian Bible, wh…

Expounding of the Law

The Expounding of the Law, sometimes called the Expounding of the Law#Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured part of the Sermon on the Mount, following both the famed Beatitudes and the metaphors of salt and light….

Halakha

Halakha is the collective corpus of Judaism religious law, including biblical law and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions….

Young’s Literal Translation

Young’s Literal Translation is a translation of the Bible into English language. The translation was made by Robert Young, compiler of Young’s Analytical Concordance to the Bible and Concise Critical Comments on the New Testament, a…

Pauline Christianity

Pauline Christianity is a common form of Christianity based on the teachings of Paul of Tarsus, who declared himself the “Apostle to the Gentiles”, and its development in his circle and among his followers….

New Perspective on Paul

The New Perspective on Paul is the name given to a significant shift in how some New Testament scholars interpret the writings of Paul of Tarsus, particularly in regard to Judaism and the common Protestant understanding of Justification by Fait…

Heresy

Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a “theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of …

Jesus

Jesus,Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D….

Pauline epistles

The Pauline epistles are the thirteen or fourteen letters in the New Testament of the Christian Bible traditionally believed to have been written by Paul of Tarsus….

Gospel of Luke

The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four Biblical canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection….

Irenaeus

Irenaeus was bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, which is now Lyon, France.His writings were formative in the early development of Christianity theology, and he is recognized as a saint by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Churc…

On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis

On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis , commonly called Against Heresies , is a five-volume work written by St….

“…being brought over to the doctrine of Simon Magus

Simon Magus

Simon Magus, also known as Simon the Sorcerer and Simon of Gitta, is the name used by the ancient Christian Orthodoxy to refer to a person identified as a Samaritan Gnosticism….
, they have apostatized in their opinions from Him who is God, and imagined that they have themselves discovered more than the apostles, by finding out another god; and [maintained] that the apostles preached the Gospel still somewhat under the influence of Jewish opinions, but that they themselves are purer [in doctrine], and more intelligent, than the apostles.”

According to Eusebius’ History of the Church 4.5.3-4: the first 15 Bishops of Jerusalem  were “of the circumcision”. The Romans destroyed the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem  in year 135 during the Bar Kokhba Revolt. However, that doesn’t necessarily mean an end to Jewish Christianity, any more than Valerian’s  Massacre of 258, (when he killed all Christian bishops, presbyters, and deacons, including Pope Sixtus II  and Antipope Novatian  and Cyprian of Carthage), meant an end to Roman Christianity.

Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem

The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church….

Jerusalem in Christianity

For Christianity, Jerusalem’s place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible, as described in the above article….

Valerian (emperor)

Publius Licinius Valerianus , known in English language as Valerian, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260….

Pope Sixtus II

Pope Sixtus II was pope from August 30, 257 to August 6, 258, following Pope Stephen I as bishop of Rome in 257….

Antipope Novatian

Novatian was a scholar and antipope who held the title between 251 and 258.He was a noted theology and writer – the first Roman theologian who used the Latin language -, at a time when there was much debate about how to deal with Christians wh…

Circumcision controversy

A common interpretation of the circumcision controversy of the New Testament  was that it was over the issue of whether Gentiles could enter the Church directly or ought to first convert to Judaism . However, the Halakha  of Rabbinic Judaism  was still under development at this time, as the Jewish Encyclopedia   article on Jesus notes: “Jesus, however, does not appear to have taken into account the fact that the Halakha was at this period just becoming crystallized, and that much variation existed as to its definite form; the disputes of the Bet Hillel  and Bet Shammai  were occurring about the time of his maturity.” This controversy was fought largely between opposing groups of Christians who were themselves ethnically Jewish. According to this interpretation, those who felt that conversion to Judaism was a prerequisite for Church membership were eventually condemned by Paul as “Judaizing teachers “.

The source of this interpretation is unknown; however, it appears related to Supersessionism  or Hyperdispensationalism  (see also New Perspective on Paul ). In addition, modern Christians, such as Ethiopian Orthodox and Coptic Orthodox still practice circumcision while not considering it a part of conversion to Judaism, nor do they consider themselves to be Jews or Jewish Christians. In 1st century Pharisaic Judaism  there was controversy over the significance of circumcision, for example between Hillel the Elder  and Shammai  (see also Circumcision in the Bible #In rabbinic literature ). Roman Catholicism condemned circumcision for its members in 1442, at the Council of Florence (*).

New Testament

The New Testament , sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and sometimes also New Covenant which is the literal translation of the Greek language, is the name given to the final portion of the Bible, the…

Conversion to Judaism

Conversion to Judaism is the religious conversion of a previously gentile person to the Judaism religion….

Halakha

Halakha is the collective corpus of Judaism religious law, including biblical law and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions….

Rabbinic Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism was the continuation of the Pharisees after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70….

Jewish Encyclopedia

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls….

Hillel the Elder

Hillel was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of Herod the Great; he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud….

Shammai

Shammai was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism’s core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah….

Judaizers

Judaizers is a pejorative term used in the Bible in the Epistles of St. Paul, and particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the…

Supersessionism

Supersessionism is the traditional Christian belief that Christianity is the fulfillment of the Old Testament, and therefore that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah fall short of their calling as Tetragrammaton chosen people….

Hyperdispensationalism

Hyper-dispensationalism, as opposed to traditional Dispensationalism, views the start of the Christian church as beginning with the ministry of the Paul_of_Tarsus after the early part of the book of Acts….

New Perspective on Paul

The New Perspective on Paul is the name given to a significant shift in how some New Testament scholars interpret the writings of Paul of Tarsus, particularly in regard to Judaism and the common Protestant understanding of Justification by Fait…

Pharisees

The Pharisees were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era….

Hillel the Elder

Hillel was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of Herod the Great; he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud….

Shammai

Shammai was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism’s core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah….

Circumcision in the Bible

Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as , and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions….

Council of Florence

The Council of Florence, was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Catholic Church which began at Basel, Switzerland, in 1431, was transferred to Ferrara in 1438 and later transferred to Florence in 1439….

Surviving communities whose origins reflect both Judaism and early Christianity

The Nasrani  or Syrian Malabar Nasrani  community in Kerala , India  is conscious of their Jewish origins. However, they have lost many of their Jewish traditions due to western influences. The Nasrani  are also known as Syrian Christians or St. Thomas Christians. This is because they follow the traditions of Syriac Christianity  and claim descent from the early converts by St. Thomas the Apostle. Today, they belong to various denominations of Christianity but they have kept their unique identity within each of these denominations. (Refer to St. Thomas Christians).

Two of the existing communities that still maintain their Jewish traditions are the Knananites and the Fallasha. The Knanaya , who are an endogamous sub-ethnic group among the Syrian Malabar Nasrani  are the descendants of early Jewish Christian settlers who arrived in Kerala in A.D 345. Although affiliated with a variety of Roman Catholic and Oriental Orthodox denominations, they have remained a cohesive community, shunning intermarriage with outsiders (but not with fellow-Knanaya of other denominations). The Fallasha  of Ethiopia likewise reflect a Hebrew tradition that was outside the influence of much of the conflicts and conquests of the Hebrews of Israel and Judea.

Nasrani

Nasrani is an Arabic word meaning Christian.Nasrani is generally understood to originally mean Nazarene, but in some areas of the Arab world, tradition holds that it derives from nasr , and means “people of victory” in refere…

Syrian Malabar Nasrani

The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic community in Kerala, South India. It is a term which refers those who became Christians in the Malabar coast in the earliest days of Christianity, including the natives and the Jewish diaspora in …

Kerala

Kerala is a States and territories of India on the tropical Malabar of southwestern India. To its east and northeast, Kerala borders Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; to its west and south lie the Indian Ocean islands of Lakshadweep and the Maldives, r…

India

India , officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries by area country by geographical area, the List of countries by population country, and the largest liberal democracy in the world….

Nasrani

Nasrani is an Arabic word meaning Christian.Nasrani is generally understood to originally mean Nazarene, but in some areas of the Arab world, tradition holds that it derives from nasr , and means “people of victory” in refere…

Syriac Christianity

Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity….

Knanaya

Knanaya Christians are Jewish Christians from Kerala, India.Menachery G. 1973, 1998; Vellian Jacob 2001; Weil,S….

Syrian Malabar Nasrani

The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic community in Kerala, South India. It is a term which refers those who became Christians in the Malabar coast in the earliest days of Christianity, including the natives and the Jewish diaspora in …

Beta Israel

The Beta Israel, known by outsiders by the term Falasha , a term that they consider to be pejorative, are Jews of Ethiopian origin….

Contemporary Jewish Christians

There are at least two varieties of syncretism s between Judaism and Christianity: syncretisms that emphasize Christianity (Jewish Christians) and syncretisms focusing on Judaism (Messianic Jews). “Jewish Christians” is sometimes used as a contemporary term in respect of persons who are ethnically Jewish but who have become part of a “mainstream” Christian group which is not predominantly based on an appeal to Jewish ethnicity or the Law of Moses. This term is used as a contrast to Messianic Jews, many of whom are ethnic Jews who have converted to a religion in which Christian belief (usually evangelical ) is generally grafted onto Jewish ritual which would, to outsiders at least, typically resemble Judaism more than Christianity.

The term could thus be used, for example, of Arnold Fruchtenbaum , the founder of Ariel Ministries. Another group which could be described as Jewish Christians is “Jews for Jesus “.

Syncretism

Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought….

Evangelicalism

The word evangelicalism usually refers to a tendency in diverse branches of conservative Christianity….

Arnold Fruchtenbaum

Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum is the Jewish founder and director of Ariel Ministries, an organization which prioritizes evangelization and discipleship of Jewish people in the effort to bring them to the knowledge and understanding that Jesus is the J…

Jews for Jesus

Jews for Jesus is a Christian Evangelism organization based in San Francisco, California, whose goal is to religious conversion Jews that Jesus is the Messiah and God….

Modern Jewish Christians and Messianic Jews

There are important similarities and differences between “Jewish Christians” (or “Hebrew Christians”) and “Messianic Jews “. Jewish Christians identify themselves primarily as Christian s. They are (mostly) members of Protestant and Catholic  congregations, (usually) are not so strict about observing Kashrut (Jewish dietary laws) or the Sabbath, and are (generally) assimilated culturally into the Christian mainstream, although they retain a strong sense of their Jewish identity which they, like Messianic Jews, strongly desire to pass on to their children. In Israel, there is a growing population of Orthodox Christians who are of Jewish descent and conduct their worship mostly in Hebrew (the most prominent language in Israel, as well as the official language). Messianic Jews  consider their primary identity to be “Jewish” and belief in Jesus  to be the logical conclusion of their “Jewishness”. They try to structure their worship according to Jewish norms, they circumcise their sons and (mostly) abstain from non-kosher foods, and (often) observe the Sabbath. Many (but by no means all) do not use the label “Christian” to describe themselves. The boundary between the two movements is blurred, but the differences between the two movements are such that it may not be fair to treat them as one (cf. Baptist s and Methodists , for example).

There are a few organizations which have been established to support Jews who wish to become Christian, most notably Jews for Jesus .

Additionally, there are a few organizations to support Messianic Jews who wish to remain faithful to Torah , most notably the UMJC and MRC.

Messianic Judaism

Messianic Judaism is a religion acknowledging the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth that claims at least 47,000 followers and 280 congregations worldwide as of 2006….

Christian

A Christian is a follower of Jesus, referred to as Christ. Christians believe Jesus to be the Son of God, who lived a life befitting that of the creator of the universe, free of sin, who at the end of his earthly life was Crucifixion, and then…

Catholic

Catholic – derived, through Latin, from the Greek language adjective , meaning “general”, “universal” – when used as a specifically Christian religious term, can have a number of meanings:…

Messianic Judaism

Messianic Judaism is a religion acknowledging the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth that claims at least 47,000 followers and 280 congregations worldwide as of 2006….

Jesus

Jesus,Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D….

Baptist

A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church or a person who believes in the practice of baptism by immersion into water….

Methodism

Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related religious denominations of Protestant Christianity….

Jews for Jesus

Jews for Jesus is a Christian Evangelism organization based in San Francisco, California, whose goal is to religious conversion Jews that Jesus is the Messiah and God….

Torah

Torah is a Hebrew language word meaning “teaching,” “instruction,” or “law”. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages….